Democratic Republic of the Congo

Page last updated:

alert status:

Genocide stage:






Targeted groups:

  • Mai-Mai militias

  • CODECO militia

  • Bana Mura militia

  • Banyamulenge 

  • Banyarwanda

  • Hema

  • Luba

  • Batwa

Al Jazeera

Archaeological Map



Stage 8: Persecution, Stage 9: Extermination, Stage 10: Denial


Self-styled "indigenous" or "native" armed groups target groups they consider foreigners in various regions affected by conflict across the country. While many groups in the DRC face civilian massacres and displacement in a context of insecurity, these latter groups are more vulnerable and targeted with disproportionate levels of hate speech and violence. In South Kivu, Mai-Mai militias from several ethnic groups have allied with Burundian rebels against the Banyamulenge, whose Congolese nationality they contest. In Ituri, the Lendu CODECO militia is targeting the Hema indiscriminately. In recent years, the Bana Mura militia and state security forces targeted Kasai-Luba civilians excessively in counter-insurgency operations in the Kasai region. Since Félix Tshisekedi became president in 2019, the security sitation in the eastern provinces has not improved. 

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Why history matters in understanding conflict in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo | The Conversation

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Tensions run high in DR Congo's remote Minembwe district | France 24 (Video)