Gbagbo acquittal at ICC raises questions over much-needed court reforms

Published by RFI on April 1, 2021.

Permanent premises of the International Criminal Court in The Hague, 2018 (Marina Riera / Human Rights Watch)



Judges at the International Criminal Court (ICC) on Thursday dismissed an appeal against Côte d’Ivoire’s former President Laurent Gbagbo, confirming his acquittal for crimes against humanity and paving the way for his return to the West African country after almost a decade.The decision was a blow for victims' families and provoked concern among observers who say the case highlights the need for serious reform within the court system.


“This is a victory for a man, President Gbagbo, whose innocence is finally fully recognised,” said Gbagbo’s lawyer Emmanuel Altit. “President Gbagbo always said that he believed in justice. Today, justice has been done.”


Gbagbo and his right-hand man Charles Blé Goudé were found not guilty of crimes against humanity in 2019 related to post-election violence in Côte d’Ivoire more than 10 years ago. Some 3,000 people were killed following disputed results in the 2010 polls.


Gbagbo refused to cede power to incumbent President Alassane Ouattara, but with the help of a French military intervention he was removed from the presidency. He was sent to the world court the next year.


ICC prosecutor Fatou Bensouda appealed the 15 January 2019 decision, arguing that the court “committed legal and procedural errors”, highlighting that judges did not make a proper written judgement until six months after an oral acquittal.


Bensouda had said Gbagbo and Blé Goudé’s acquittal must be reversed and must be declared a mistrial, saying the judges did not apply a “clearly defined standard of proof” in reviewing the evidence.


“I’m not surprised, the trial judgement had been quite clear and conclusive on the fact that the prosecutor had not presented enough evidence or evidence that was convincing enough,” said Mariana Pena, who has been following the trial for the Open Society Justice Initiative, a non-governmental organisation.


More than 4,600 documents were examined and 96 witnesses appeared on the stand during the trial of the first former head of state to sit in the dock at The Hague court.


Part of the prosecution’s appeal relied on an argument about a claimed procedural error when the original verdict was handed down in 2019, with the prosecutors office saying judges did not make a proper written judgement.


“I think the reason the prosecution appealed on those procedural grounds is because that they’re seeking to establish jurisprudence for the way forward,” legal expert Pena told RFI, explaining that this was probably a move by Bensouda to try and establish a standard for how judgments are delivered.



ICC reforms


Another key tenet of the prosecutors appeal was how the judges set standards for the evidence against Gbagbo and youth wing leader Blé Goudé.


The appeal verdict served to further underline the need for reforms to the ICC, a process that has already started since the original verdict, according to Pena, who has previously represented victims at the ICC.


“The damage of the acquittal has been done,” she said, describing how the 2019 verdict, in part, encouraged many stakeholders to push for change, especially on questions about the prosecutor providing sufficient evidence.


“Things need to change in terms of how investigations are conducted,” Pena added, outlining specific criticism about how in-country investigation teams operate, an aspect already identified in the review process.


Some criticism has been levelled at ICC Prosecutor Bensouda herself, who will soon be replaced by incoming prosecutor Karim Khan, a British barrister.


Nevertheless, Pena points to some successes achieved by the Gambian lawyer, such as the conviction of Congolese warlord Bosco Ntaganda, who’s conviction was confirmed earlier this week.


“I think it’s not just about the person who leads,” said the Argentine lawyer, referring to a resistance to change within the ICC that also comes from other senior management and staff.



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