Sudanese take part in a march against the Rapid Support Forces, who they blame for a raid on protesters who had camped outside the defense ministry during the 2019 revolution, in Khartoum, Sudan, June 3, 2021. REUTERS/Mohamed Nureldin Abdallah
Genocide Emergency Alert: Sudan
Genocide Watch is issuing a Genocide Emergency Alert for Sudan. Arab militias are attacking villages and IDP camps, killing and displacing primarily non-Arab African civilians.
Ethnic tensions between Arab and non-Arab African tribes have long existed in Sudan, and genocide against non-Arab Sudanese has been ongoing since 1983. During Sudan’s era of British colonization, the British favored the Arab minority. After independence, the Arab elite retained their political power and have repeatedly used forced displacement and genocide to marginalize non-Arab Sudanese.
Protesters and the Sudanese military ousted longtime dictator Omar al-Bashir in 2019. In his place, a transitional government took control, comprised of both military and civilian leaders. Though Lt. Gen. Abdel Fattah al-Burhan is Sudan’s official leader, his second-in-command, Lt. Gen. Mohamed Hamdan, is in actual control. General Hamdan, known as Hemeti, is the former enforcer for al-Bashir. He commands the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), a paramilitary army recruited from the Janjaweed militia, the Arab terrorists that carried out genocide in Darfur. The RSF continues to be responsible for numerous human rights abuses, including rape, murder, and torture of civilians—particularly during recent protests.
Since UNAMID, the UN’s peacekeeping mission in Sudan, pulled out in December 2020, there has been a resurgence of attacks on non-Arabs. Armed Arab militias have attacked civilians in IDP camps and villages, killing many and displacing thousands more.
The Sudanese government and several non-Arab rebel groups, including the SPLM-N and SLM-AW, are currently participating in a peace process and recently signed a Declaration of Principles in late March.
Despite the peace process, genocidal violence has continued. In early April, violence broke out between Arabs and Masalit tribes in West Darfur, killing, injuring, and displacing many civilians. The RSF and Arab militias have targeted Masalit civilians. RSF missiles have hit a hospital and a UN compound. Over 100 people have been killed. Local organizations have reported many cases of sexual violence.
Victims of the genocide in Darfur in 2003 are still living in internally displaced persons camps, where they are vulnerable to further attacks.
Due to the unfinished peace process and continuing massacres against non-Arab African civilians, Genocide Watch considers Sudan to be at Stage 9: Extermination.
Genocide Watch’s Recommendations:
· The UN should expand UNITAMS efforts to implement peace agreements and protect civilians, particularly women, girls, and internally displaced persons.
· The Sudanese government should dissolve the RSF and establish a disciplined multi-ethnic security force, with international oversight and accountability.
· IGOs should supervise the planned 2022 election to ensure a fair, peaceful, and effective establishment of a democratic government to replace the current military dominated coalition.
· Sudanese authorities should investigate and prosecute all incidents of violent attacks.
· Omar Al-Bashir should be handed over to the ICC to be tried for genocide.
· Hemeti should be charged and tried in the International Criminal Court for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide.