Democratic Republic of the Congo
Stage 8: Persecution, Stage 9: Extermination, Stage 10: Denial
Self-styled "indigenous" or "native" armed groups target groups they consider foreigners in various regions affected by conflict across the country. While many groups in the DRC face civilian massacres and displacement in a context of insecurity, these latter groups are more vulnerable and targeted with disproportionate levels of hate speech and violence. In South Kivu, Mai-Mai militias from several ethnic groups have allied with Burundian rebels against the Banyamulenge, whose Congolese nationality they contest. They have besieged thousands of dispossessed and displaced Banyamulenge in Minembwe. More broadly, Rwandophones are persecuted as they are not considered Congolese. In Ituri, the Lendu CODECO militia is indiscriminately targeting the Hema in what the UN has said may constitute genocide. In recent years, state security forces targeted Kasai-Luba civilians excessively in counter-insurgency operations in the Kasai region. In Kasai Province, the Bana Mura militia joined state forces to clearly target Luba with the aim of eliminating them. Additionally, the hunter-gather Batwa face cultural genocide in the forests they depend on. Since Félix Tshisekedi became president in 2019, the security sitation in the DRC has not improved.
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The War Criminals Trying to Prevent a Genocide | Vice News
Hate Speech and Genocide in Minembwe, D.R. Congo | Genocide Watch, Rukumbuzi Delphin Ntanyoma & Thomas Shacklock
Expressive violence and the slow genocide of the Banyamulenge of South Kivu | Rukumbuzi Delphin Ntanyoma & Helen Hintjens