Stage 6: Polarization, Stage 7: Persecution, Stage 10: Denial
Ukrainian history has several instances of genocide and mass killings. In the 1930s, Joseph Stalin deliberately starved the Ukrainian people in a genocidal famine known as the Holodomor. During the Second World War, the Nazis and their Ukrainian collaborators killed an estimated 1.5 million Jews, with 33,000 killed at the Babi Yar ravine outside Kyiv. Joseph Stalin also deported the entire population of Crimean Tatars from their homes to deportations camps in Central Asia. Many Crimean Tatar's were not allowed to return to their homes until the 1990s and many of their homes and land have been since given to ethnic Ukrainians and Russians. The Russian Federation, under President Vladimir Putin, illegally annexed the Crimea peninsula in 2014 and continues to support Russian separatists in the breakaway regions of Donbas and Lukhansk, frequently targeting ethnic Ukrainians. Groups such as Right-Sector, Azov, Svoboda, and S-14; have openly expressed neo-nazi, anti-Semitic, and xenophobic ideology and have subsequently violently attacked minority communities.
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