CIA World Factbook
Stage 6: Polarization, Stage 8: Persecution
Since 2014, economic collapse coupled with severe state-led repression has forced more than 5.4 million refugees to flee the country. The government of Nicolás Maduro continues to detain, torture, and kill civilians. State security forces and armed groups are committing rights abuses.
Venezuela’s humanitarian crisis has only worsened under COVID-19
Venezuela: The Rise and Fall of a Petrostate
Social Control and Abuses by Armed Groups in Colombia’s Arauca Province and Venezuela’s Apure State