CIA World Factbook
Stage 6: Polarization
Since gaining independence from France in 1958, Guinea has experienced decades of political instability, authoritarian rule, and episodic state-led mass violence that continues to this day. In 2008, a military junta seized control of the country in a bloodless coup. The junta cracked down on civil society and all forms of political dissent, culminating in the September 2009 massacre of more than 150 civilians and the mass rape of protesters by security forces.
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