Hindu Officials in India Raze Muslim Homes and Businesses

Hasina Fakhroo, whose house in Khargone was razed, said the authorities “took out their anger” through collective punishment.Credit...Anindito Mukherjee for The New York Times

Perpetual Violence’: India’s Dangerous New Pattern of Communal Tensions

As a national campaign by right-wing groups inflames local tensions, Muslim communities are facing the harshest punishments, according to activists, analysts and retired officials.

By Hari Kumar, Mujib Mashal and Suhasini Raj

New York Times

May 11, 2022

KHARGONE, India — The authorities sent bulldozers to the small city in central India within 24 hours of clashes between Hindus and Muslims that turned into a mob-fueled rampage.

The Hindus said stones had been thrown from the direction of the mosque, where Muslims were breaking the Ramadan fast. The Muslims said the Hindu procession had moved toward them with provocative chants.

Before any official investigation or court ruling, the home minister of the state, Madhya Pradesh, appeared to fault the Muslims and ordered demolitions — the same swift, one-sided punishments imposed in two other states over recent clashes. “The houses from where the stones were pelted, we will turn those houses into piles of stone,” said Narottam Mishra, the home minister.

The communal tensions in Khargone, New Delhi and Gujarat — and the demolitions that followed in each — are part of a worrisome new pattern, according to analysts, activists and former civil servants.

In the past, such clashes, while often deadlier, were usually set off by a local issue and would remain contained to a single area. The trigger for the 2002 Gujarat riots, which left more than 1,000 dead, was a train fire that killed dozens of Hindu pilgrims.

The recent violence, the most widespread communal tensions in recent years, played out across several states, multiple clashes with the same characteristics and one-sided punishments. And they are rooted in the rhetoric of right-wing groups at the national level that are targeting Muslims through provocation, a campaign emboldened by the silence of the country’s top leaders.

The concern, say analysts, activists, and former civil servants, is that the clashes will become more frequent, pushing the nation into a cycle of violence and instability.

Residents protested the demolitions in a New Delhi neighborhood last month. Bulldozers continued razing property for nearly two hours after India’s chief justice issued an order to halt. Credit...Anindito Mukherjee for The New York Times

Backhoes at work demolishing buildings in New Delhi after the rioting there.Credit...Anindito Mukherjee for The New York Times

The nationwide provocations by right-wing activists, which spread swiftly through social media, inspire local groups, who are increasingly turning religious occasions into political events promoting a Hindu-first vision of India that relegates minorities to second-class citizens. When the recent tensions spilled into violence last month, authorities in those places rushed to dole out punishment that fell disproportionately on Muslims and in ways that circumvented the legal process.

After clashes in New Delhi, demolition, mainly of Muslim-run shops and kiosks, continued for nearly two hours after India’s chief justice issued an order to halt. Bulldozers swooped up tea stalls and ripped out staircases that left a family stranded without a way down. They destroyed the walls of a mosque before stopping short of a nearby Hindu temple.

Officials in the three states justified the razing, saying that they were going after illegal encroachment. But the timing, along with speeches by local politicians calling for the demolitions, suggested a link to the clashes, activists and analysts say.

“I fear that we are in the stage of perpetual violence,” said Asim Ali, a researcher who has studied the rise of Hindu nationalism, known as Hindutva.

A market scene in New Delhi, in a neighborhood affected by last month’s communal violence.Credit...Anindito Mukherjee for The New York Times

A shopkeeper in Khargone peering out of his shop a few days after the unrest in April. The authorities had imposed a curfew, and he was waiting for it to be relaxed so he could open for business.Credit...Anindito Mukherjee for The New York Times

“Social media and 24/7 news channels mean that Hindutva groups, which are now very technologically savvy, graft into the local context any hot-button communal issue that takes place anywhere in the country,” he said.

In an open letter to Prime Minister Narendra Modi, more than a hundred retired senior civil servants called for an end to hate and “vigilante violence” that they said had “embedded itself deep in the recesses of the structures, institutions and processes of governance.”

“The administration of law, instead of being an instrument for maintaining peace and harmony, has become the means by which the minorities can be kept in a state of perpetual fear,” they said.

Another group of retired officials countered with a letter in support of Mr. Modi, calling the concerns “empty virtue-signaling.” “What do you mean by provocation?” said Vinod Bansal, a spokesman for Vishwa Hindu Parishad, a right-wing group behind some of the recent processions. “These are false allegations levied by the perpetrators to save their skins and hide their sins,” he added. “Hindus are in fact victims in all such cases.”

Khargone, a town of about 200,000 in Madhya Pradesh state where the worst of the communal violence happened on April 10, has a history of small-scale tensions. About three-quarters of the population is Hindu; in many neighborhoods, Hindus and Muslims share the same streets.

Like other recent clashes, the Khargone violence centered on the birthday celebrations of a Hindu god, which overlapped with Ramadan this year.

One procession ended peacefully. Authorities approved a second on a designated route to avoid the mosque at its busiest hour when Muslims gather to break their Ramadan fast. But that procession, which included hundreds of participants, took place later, at peak time.

Among the chants repeated was one heard across other states, too